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FLAT GROUP RACE HISTORY


Aidan O'Brien 285 Flat Group 1 Records 


 Ireland 91

 

  • Irish 1,000 Guineas – (7) – Classic Park (1997), Imagine (2001), Yesterday (2003), Halfway to Heaven (2008), Misty for Me (2011), Marvellous (2014) Winter (2017)
  • Irish 2,000 Guineas – (11) – Desert King (1997), Saffron Walden (1999), Black Minnaloushe (2001), Rock of Gibraltar (2002),Henrythenavigator (2008), Mastercraftsman (2009), Roderic O'Connor (2011), Power (2012), Magician (2013) Gleneagles (2015), Churchill (2017)
  • Irish Champion Stakes – (7) – Giant's Causeway (2000), High Chaparral (2003), Oratorio (2005), Dylan Thomas (2006, 2007),Cape Blanco (2010), So You Think (2011)
  • Irish Derby – (12) – Desert King (1997), Galileo (2001), High Chaparral (2002), Dylan Thomas (2006), Soldier of Fortune (2007),Frozen Fire (2008), Fame and Glory (2009), Cape Blanco (2010), Treasure Beach (2011), Camelot (2012), Australia (2014), Capri (2017)
  • Irish Oaks – (5) – Alexandrova (2006), Peeping Fawn (2007), Moonstone (2008), Bracelet (2014) Seventh Heaven (2016)
  • Irish St. Leger – (3) – Yeats (2007), Septimus (2008) Order Of St George (2015)
  • Matron Stakes – (2) – Lillie Langtry (2010) Alice Springs (2016)
  • Moyglare Stud Stakes – (7) – Sequoyah (2000), Quarter Moon (2001), Necklace (2003), Rumplestiltskin (2005), Misty for Me (2010), Maybe (2011) Mindung (2015)
  • National Stakes – (11) – Desert King (1996), King of Kings (1997), Beckett (2000), Hawk Wing (2001), One Cool Cat (2003),George Washington (2005), Mastercraftsman (2008), Power (2011), Gleneagles (2014) Air Force Blue (2015) Churchill (2016)
  • Phoenix Stakes – (16) – Lavery (1998), Fasliyev (1999), Minardi (2000), Johannesburg (2001), Spartacus (2002), One Cool Cat (2003), George Washington (2005), Holy Roman Emperor (2006), Mastercraftsman (2008), Alfred Nobel (2009), Zoffany (2010), Pedro The Great (2012), Dick Whittington (2014) Air Force Blue (2015), Crarvaggio (2016), Sioux Nation (2017)
  • Pretty Polly Stakes – 4) – Peeping Fawn (2007), Misty For Me (2011) Diamondsandrubies (2015) Minding (2016)
  • Tattersalls Gold Cup – (6) – Black Sam Bellamy (2003), Powerscourt (2004), Duke of Marmalade (2008), Fame and Glory (2010), So You Think (2011, 2012)

Leading Trainer in 6 races = Irish 2000 Guineas, Irish Champion Stakes, Irish Derby, Moyglare Stud Stakes, Phoenix Stakes, Tattersalls Gold Cup

Australia 1

  • Cox Plate - (1) Adelaide (2014)

 Canada 2

  • Canadian International – (2) – Ballingarry (2002), Joshua Tree (2010)

 France 40

  • Poule d'Essai des Poulains – (4) – Landseer (2002), Aussie Rules (2006), Astronomer Royal (2007) The Gurkha (2016)
  • Poule d'Essai des Pouliches – (1) – Rose Gypsy (2001)
  • Critérium International – (4) – Mount Nelson (2006), Jan Vermeer (2009), Roderic O'Connor (2010) Johannes Vermeer (2015)
  • Critérium de Saint-Cloud – (4) – Ballingarry (2001), Alberto Giacometti (2002), Fame and Glory (2008), Recital (2010)
  • Grand Prix de Paris – (2) – Scorpion (2005), Imperial Monarch (2012)
  • Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe – (2) – Dylan Thomas (2007) Found (2016)
  • Prix Ganay – (2) – Dylan Thomas (2007), Duke of Marmalade (2008)
  • Prix Jean-Luc Lagardère – (7) – Second Empire (1997), Ciro (1999), Rock of Gibraltar (2001), Hold That Tiger (2002), Oratorio (2004), Horatio Nelson (2005), Holy Roman Emperor (2006)
  • Prix Jacques la Marois - (1) - Excelebration (2012)
  • Prix Lupin – (1) – Ciro (2000)
  • Prix Marcel Boussac – (4) – Rumplestiltskin (2005), Misty for Me (2010) Found (2014) Ballydoyle (2015)
  • Prix Maurice de Gheest – (1) – King Charlemagne (2001)
  • Prix Morny – (3) – Orpen (1998), Fasliyev (1999), Johannesburg (2001)
  • Prix du Moulin de Longchamp – (1) – Rock of Gibraltar (2002)
  • Prix Rothschild – (1) –  Roly Poly (2017)
  • Prix Royal-Oak – (1) – Yeats (2008) 
  • Prix de la Salamandre – (1) – Giant's Causeway (1999)

Leading trainer in 1 race = Criterium International

 Great Britain 124

  • 1,000 Guineas – (4) – Virginia Waters (2005)Homecoming Queen (2012) Minding (2016), Winter (2017)
  • 2,000 Guineas – (8) – King of Kings (1998), Rock of Gibraltar (2002), Footstepsinthesand (2005), George Washington (2006),Henrythenavigator (2008), Camelot (2012) Gleneagles (2015), Churchill (2017)
  • Ascot Gold Cup – (7) – Yeats (2006, 2007, 2008, 2009), Fame and Glory (2011), Leading Light (2014) Order of St George (2016)
  • Cheveley Park Stakes – (1) –  Brave Anna (2016)
  • Coronation Cup – (8) – Yeats (2005), Scorpion (2007), Soldier of Fortune (2008), Fame and Glory (2010), St Nicholas Abbey(2011, 2012, 2013) Highland Reel (2017)
  • Coronation Stakes – (3) – Sophisticat (2002), Lillie Langtry (2010), Winter (2017)
  • Commonwealth Cup – (1) –  Caravaggio (2017)
  • Derby Stakes – (6) – Galileo (2001), High Chaparral (2002), Camelot (2012), Ruler Of The World (2013), Australia (2014), Wings Of Eagles (2017)
  • Dewhurst Stakes – (5) – Rock of Gibraltar (2001), Beethoven (2009), War Command (2013) Air Force Blue (2015) Churchill (2016)
  • Eclipse Stakes – (5) – Giant's Causeway (2000), Hawk Wing (2002), Oratorio (2005), Mount Nelson (2008), So You Think (2011)
  • Falmouth Stakes – (2) – Alice Springs (2016), Roly Poly (2017)
  • Fillies' Mile – (5) – Sunspangled (1998), Listen (2007) Together Forever (2014) Minding (2015) Rhododendron (2016)
  • Golden Jubilee Stakes – (1) – Starspangledbanner (2010) 
  • International Stakes – (5) – Giant's Causeway (2000), Duke of Marmalade (2008), Rip Van Winkle (2010), Declaration Of War (2013). Australia (2014)
  • July Cup – (3) – Stravinsky (1999), Mozart (2001), Starspangledbanner (2010)
  • King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes – (4) – Galileo (2001), Dylan Thomas (2007), Duke of Marmalade (2008) Highland Reel (2016)
  • Lockinge Stakes – (1) – Hawk Wing (2003)
  • Middle Park Stakes – (4) – Minardi (2000), Johannesburg (2001), Ad Valorem (2004), Crusade (2011)
  • Nassau Stakes – (4) – Peeping Fawn (2007), Halfway to Heaven (2008), Minding (2016), Winter (2017) 
  • Nunthorpe Stakes – (2) – Stravinsky (1999), Mozart (2001)
  • Oaks – (6) – Shahtoush (1998), Imagine (2001), Alexandrova (2006), Was (2012) Qualify (2015) Minding (Oaks)
  • Prince of Wales's Stakes – (3) – Duke of Marmalade (2008), So You Think (2012), Highland Reel (2017)
  • Queen Anne Stakes – (2) – Ad Valorem (2006), Haradasun (2008), Declaration Of War (2013)
  • Queen Elizabeth II Stakes – (4) – George Washington (2006), Rip Van Winkle (2009), Excelebration (2012) Minding (2016)
  • Racing Post Trophy – (7) – Saratoga Springs (1997), Aristotle (1999), High Chaparral (2001), Brian Boru (2002), St Nicholas Abbey (2009), Camelot (2011), Kingsbarns (2012)
  • St. James's Palace Stakes – (7) – Giant's Causeway (2000), Black Minnaloushe (2001), Rock of Gibraltar (2002), Excellent Art (2007), Henrythenavigator (2008), Mastercraftsman (2009) Gleneagles (2015)
  • St. Leger – (4) – Milan (2001), Brian Boru (2003), Scorpion (2005), Leading Light (2013) 
  • Sun Chariot Stakes – (2) – Halfway to Heaven (2008) Alice Springs (2016)
  • Sussex Stakes – (5) – Giant's Causeway (2000), Rock of Gibraltar (2002), Henrythenavigator (2008), Rip Van Winkle (2009), The Gurkha (2016)
  • Yorkshire Oaks – (4) – Alexandrova (2006), Peeping Fawn (2007), Tapestry (2014), Seventh Heaven (2016)

Leading trainer in 5 races = 2000 Guineas*, Coronation Cup, Gold Cup, St James's Palace Stakes*, Middle Park Stakes*, Juddmonte International*

Hong Kong 1

  • Hong Kong Vase - (1) - Highland Reel (2015)

Italy 3

  • Gran Criterium – (2) – Sholokhov (2001), Spartacus (2002)
  • Gran Premio del Jockey Club – (1) – Black Sam Bellamy (2002)

 United States 22

  • Arlington Million – (2) – Powerscourt (2005), Cape Blanco (2011)
  • Breeders' Cup Juvenile – (1) – Johannesburg (2001)
  • Breeders' Cup Juvenile Turf – (3) – Wrote (2011), George Vancouver (2012) Hit it a Bomb (2015)
  • Breeders' Cup Turf – (5) – High Chaparral (2002, 2003 DH), St Nicholas Abbey (2011), Magician (2013), Found (2015) Highland Reel (2016)
  • Belmont Derby – (1) – Deauville (2016)
  • Joe Hirsch Turf Classic Invitational Stakes - (1) - Cape Blanco (2011)
  • Man o' War Stakes – (1) – Cape Blanco (2011)
  • Secretariat Stakes – (4) – Ciro (2000), Treasure Beach (2011), Adelaide (2014) Highland Reel (2015),
  • Shadwell Turf Mile Stakes – (2) – Landseer (2002), Aussie Rules (2006)
  • Queen Elizabeth II Challenge Cup Stakes - (1) - Together (2011)

Leading trainer in 2 race = Breeders Cup Turf*, Secretariat Stakes

UAE 1

  • Dubai Sheema Classic - (1) - St Nicholas Abbey (2013)



Aidan O'Brien 110 Group 2 Records 

Ireland  56

  • Mooresbridge Stakes – (1) – Minding (2017)
  • Railway Stakes – (7) – Antonius Pius (2003), George Washington (2005), Holy Roman Emperor (2006), Lizard Island (2007), Mastercraftsman (2008), Alfred Nobel (2009) Painted Cliffs (2015)
  • Debutante Stakes – (8) – Silk And Scarlet (2004), Rumplestiltskin (2005), Lillie Langtry (2009), Maybe (2011), Tapestry (2013) Ballydoyle (2015) Rhododendron (2016), Magical (2017)
  • Futurity Stakes – (9) – Hawk Wing (2001), Van Nistelrooy (2002), Oratorio (2004), Horatio Nelson (2005), Cape Blanco (2009), War Command (2013), Gleneagles (2014), Churchill (2016), Rostropovich (2017)
  • Blandford Stakes – (1) – Say (2012)
  • Beresford Stakes – (10) – Albert Hall (2004), Septimus (2005), Eagle Mountain (2006), St Nicholas Abbey (2009), David Livingston (2011), Battle Of Marengo (2012), Geoffrey Chaucer (2013) Ol'Man River (2014) Port Douglas (2015) Capri (2016) 
  • Derrinstown Stud Derby Trial – (7) – Yeats (2004), Dylan Thomas (2006), Archipenko (2007), Fame And Glory (2009), Midas Touch (2010), Recital (2011), Battle Of Marengo (2013)
  • Ridgewood Pearl Stakes – (1) – Airwave (2005)
  • Gallinule Stakes – (1) – Johan Cruyff (1997)
  • International Stakes – (1) – Century City (2002)
  • Kilboy Estates Stakes – (2) –  Wedding Vow (2015), Elizabeth Browning (2017)
  • Minstrel Stakes – (1) –  Spirit Of Valor (2017)
  • Royal Whips Stakes – (6) – Bach (2001), High Chaparral (2003), Solskjaer (2004), Eagle Mountain (2007), King Of Rome (2008), Fame And Glory (2010)
  • Curragh Cup  – (1)  –  Swordfighter (2016)

 

Great Britain 46

  • Dahlia Stakes  – (1) Somehow (2017) 
  • Jockey Club Stakes – (1) Seventh Heaven (2017) 
  • Dante Stakes – (4) – Saratoga Spring (1998), Septimus (2006), Black Bear Island (2009), Cape Blanco (2010)
  • Coventry Stakes – (4) - Henrythenavigator (2007), Power (2011), War Command (2013) Caravaggio (2016)
  • Norfolk Stakes – (2) Waterloo Bridge (2015) Sioux Nation (2017)
  • Ribblesdale Stakes – (2) – Bracelet (2014) Even Song (2016)
  • King Edward VII Stakes – (1) – Five Dynasties (2004)
  • Hardwicke Stakes – (3) – Macarthur (2008), Await The Dawn (2011), Idaho (2017)
  • July Stakes – (1) – Ivan Denisovich (2005)
  • Duchess Of Cambridge Stakes – (3) – You’resothrilling (2007) Roly Poly (2016), Clemmie (2017)
  • Superlative Stakes  – (1) – Gustav Klimt (2017)
  • Vintage Stakes – (2) – Highland Reel (2014) War Decree (2016)
  • Goodwood Cup – (2) – Yeats (2006, 2008)
  • Richmond Stakes – (1) – Pyrus (2000)
  • Great Voltigeur Stakes – (3) – Milan (2001), Powerscourt (2003), Idaho (2016)
  • Lonsdale Cup – (1) – Septimus (2007)
  • Gimcrack Stakes – (2) – Mull Of Kintyre (1999), Rock OfGibraltar (2001)
  • Doncaster Cup – (2) – Septimus (2007), Honolulu (2008)
  • Champagne Stakes – (1) – Westphalia (2008)
  • Joel Stakes  – (1) – Cougar Mountain (2016)
  • Royal Lodge Stakes – (5) – Royal Kingdom (1999), Mutinyonthebounty (2001), Admiralofthefleet (2006), Joshua Tree (2009), Daddy Long Legs (2011)
  • Rockfel Stakes – (2) – Kitty Matcham (2007), Wading (2011)
  • Sprint Stakes – (1) – Bianconi (1998)

 

 

France  6

  • Prix Noailles – (2) – Ballingarry (2002), Soldier Of Fortune (2007)
  • Prix Hocquart – (1) – Anton Chekhov (2007)
  • Prix Robert Papin – (1) – Rossini (1999)
  • Prix Niel – (1) – Soldier Of Fortune (2007)
  • Prix Foy – (1) – Ruler Of The World (2014)

 

UAE  2

  • UAE Derby – (2) – Daddy Long Legs (2012), Lines Of Battle(2013)



Aidan O'Brien 235 Group 3 Records Updated 

Ireland 185

  • Railway Stakes – (5) – King Of Kings (1997), Bernstein (1999), Honours List (2000), Rock Of Gibraltar (2001), Hold That Tiger (2002)
  • Debutante Stakes – (1) – Necklace (2003)
  • Futurity Stakes – (2) – Impressionist (1997), Giant’s Causeway (1999)
  • Solonaway – (5) – Risk Material (1998), Shoal Creek (2000), Troubadour (2004), Ivan Denisovich (2006), Steinbeck (2010)
  • Blandford Stakes – (1) – Chiang Mai (2000)
  • Beresford Stakes – (6) – Johan Cruyff (1996), Saratoga Spring (1997), Festival Hall (1998), Lermontov (1999), Turnberry Isle (2000), Castle Gandolfo (2001)
  • Gladness Stakes – (2) – Giant’s Causeway (2000), Excelebration (2012)
  • Leopardstown 1,000 Guineas Trial – (7) - Virginia Waters (2005), Kamarinskaya (2006), Empowering (2011), Homecoming Queen (2012), Bracelet (2014) Kissed By Angels (2015), Hydrangea (2017)
  • Ballysax Stakes – (4) – Balestrini (2003), Yeats (2004), Fame And Glory (2009), Battle Of Marengo (2013)
  • Athasi Stakes – (1) – Lucky (2004)
  • Mooresbridge Stakes – (7) – Septimus (2007), Fame And Glory (2010), So You Think (2011), Windsor Palace (2012), Camelot (2013), Magician (2014) Found (2016)
  • Derrinstown Stud 1,000 Guineas Trial – (3) – Belle Artiste (2005), Queen Cleopatra (2006), Just Pretending (2013)
  • Derrinstown Stud Derby Trial – (4) – Risk Material (1998), Galileo (2001), High Chaparral (2002) Douglas MacArthur (2017)
  • Blue Wind Stakes – (1) – Adored (2008)
  • Vintage Crop Stakes – (2) – Leading Light (2014) Bondi Beach (2016)
  • Greenlands Stakes – (1) – Astronomer Royal (2008)
  • Lacken Stakes  – (1) – Caravaggio (2017)
  • Gallinule Stakes – (14) – Urban Ocean (1999), Glyndebourne (2000), Della Francesca (2002), Meath (2004), Puerto Rico (2006), Alexander Of Hales (2007), Hebridean (2008), Grand Ducal (2009), Jan Vermeer (2010), Alexander Pope (2011), Leading Light (2013), Adelaide (2014) Beacon Rock (2016), Homesman (2017)
  • Ballycorus Stakes – (2) – King Charlemagne (2001) Dick Whittington (2016)
  • Ballyogan Stakes – (2) – Catch The Bus (1997), Dietrich (2001),
  • Munster Oaks – (4) – Ice Queen (2008), Venus De Milo (2014) Words (2015) Pretty Perfect (2016)
  • International Stakes – (5) – Plan (2008), Flying The Flag (2013), Mekong River (2014) Sir Isaac Newton (2016), Johannes Vermeer (2107)
  • Grangecon Stud Stakes – (4) – Bye Bye Birdie (2013), I Am Beautiful (2014) Roly Poly (2016), Clemmie (2017)
  • Curragh Cup – (4) – Septimus (2008), Ernest Hemingway (2013, 2014) Bondi Beach (2015)
  • Sapphire Stakes – (1) – Fountain Of Youth (2014)
  • Silver Flash Stakes – (6) – Cabaret (2009), Together (2010), Maybe (2011), Wonderfully (2013) Promise to be True (2016), Happily (2017)
  • Minstrel Stakes – (3) – King Charlemange (2001), Air Chief Marshal (2010), Darwin (2013)
  • Anglesey Stakes – (11) – Air Of Distinction (1996), Rossini (1999), Johannesburg (2001), Ontario (2002), One Cool Cat (2003), Oratorio (2004), Amigoni (2005), Wilshire Boulevard (2013), Dick Whittington (2014) Peace Envoy (2016), Actress (2017)
  • Tyros Stakes – (7) – Rip Van Winkle (2008), Cape Blanco (2009), Zoffany (2010), Gleneagles (2014) Deauville (2015) Churchill (2016), The Pentagon (2017)
  • Meld Stakes – (2) – Mingun (2003), King Of Rome (2008)
  • Give Thanks Stakes – (3) – Tamarind (2009), Venus De Milo (2013) Best in the World (2016)
  • Ballyroan Stakes – (4) – Ernest Hemingway (2013), Eye Of The Storm (2014) Fields of Athenry (2015), Spanish Steps (2017)
  • Phoenix Sprint Stakes – (2) – One Cool Cat (2004), Washington DC (2017)
  • Desmond Stakes – (5) – Second Empire (1998), Hawkeye (2001), Ace (2004), Beethoven (2010), Cougar Mountain (2015)
  • Renaissance Stakes – (2) – Beauty Bright (2006) The Happy Prince (2016)
  • Royal Whips Stakes – (3) – Dancing Sunset (1994), Hall Of Mirrors (2014) Found (2015)
  • Irish St Leger Trial – (4) – Leading Light (2014) Order Of St George (2015), Order Of St George (2016), Order Of St George (2017)
  • Round Tower Stakes – (3) – Cherokee (2004), Great White Eagle (2013) Intelligence Cross (2016)
  • Snow Fairy Fillies Stakes  – (1) – Somehow (2016)
  • Dance Design Stakes – (2) – Up (2012), Say (2013)
  • Juvenile Turf Stakes – (3) – Australia (2013), John F Kennedy (2014) Johannes Vermeer (2015)
  • Enterprise Stakes – (5) – Frost Giant (2006), The Bogberry (2008), Poet (2009), Await The Dawn (2010), The United Stakes (2013)
  • Flying Five Stakes – (1) – Ishiguru (2001)
  • Denny Cordell Fillies Stakes – (1) – Race For The Stars (2006)
  • C.L. Weld Park Stakes – (4) – Imagine (2000), Magical Dream (2012) Qualify (2014) Coolmore (2015) 
  • Diamond Stakes – (4) – Mastercraftsman (2009), Freedom (2011), Declaration Of War (2012) Long Island Sound (2016) 
  • Concorde Stakes – (2) – Bernstein (2000), Psalm (2012)
  • Killavullan Stakes – (10) - Shell Ginger (1996), Kincara Palace (1997), Monashee Mountain (1999), Perigee Moon (2000), Stonemason (2001), Footstepsinthesand (2004), Frost Giant (2005), Jupiter Pluvius (2007), Nephrite (2011), Craftsman (2013)
  • Leopardstown 2,000 Guineas Trial – (1) – Furner’s Green
  • Tetrarch Stakes – (5) – Desert King (1997), MonasheeMountain (2000), Modigliani (2001), Century City (2002),France (2003)
  • Fillies’ Sprint Stakes – (2) – You’resothrilling (2007), Lillie Langtry (2009)

 

Great Britain 43

  • Middleton Stakes – (1) – All To Beautiful (2005)
  • Coventry Stakes – (4) - Harbour Master (1997), Fasliyev (1999), Landseer (2001), Statue of Liberty (2002)
  • Jersey Stakes – (3) – Mozart (2001), Ishvana (2012), Gale Force Ten (2013)
  • Norfolk Stakes – (1) – Johannesburg (2001)
  • Albany Stakes – (1) – Brave Anna (2016)
  • Superlative Stakes – (1) – Horatio Nelson (2005)
  • King George Stakes – (1) – Dietrich (2001)
  • Long Distance Cup – (1) – Fame And Glory (2011)
  • Sandown Classic Trial – (1) – Imperial Monarch (2012)
  • Huxley Stakes – (2) – Await The Dawn (2011), Deauville (2017) 
  • Chester Vase – (8) – Soldier Of Fortune (2007), Golden Sword (2009), Treasure Beach (2011), Ruler Of The World (2013), Orchestra (2014) Hans Holbein (2015) US Army Ranger (2016) Venice Beach (2017)
  • Ormonde Stakes – (3) – Macarthur (2008), St Nicholas Abbey (2011), Memphis Tennessee (2012)
  • Gordon Stakes – (2) – Yellowstone (2007) Highland Reel (2015)
  • Strensall Stakes – (1) – Mullins Bay (2005)
  • Somerville Tattersalls Stakes – (2) – King Charlemagne (2000), Aussie Rules (2005)
  • Horris Hill Stakes – (1) – Hurricane Cat (2005)
  • Dee Stakes – (4) – Gypsy King (2005), Admiralofthefleet (2007), Astrology (2012), Magician (2013)
  • Lingfield Derby Trial – (2) – Alessandro Volta (2008), Age Of Aquarius (2009)
  • Queen Vase – (3) – Mahler (2007), Mikhail Glinka (2010), Leading Light (2013)
  • Bahrain Trophy  – (1) – Housesofparliment (2016 

Italy 1

  •   Premio Sergio Cumani – (1) – Toroca(2001)

 

France  5

  • Prix la Force – (1) – Diaghilev(2002)
  •  Prix de la Grotte – (1) – Sophisticat(2002)
  •  Prix de Saint-George – (1) – Black Rock Desert(1999)
  •  Prix de Cabourg – (1) – Hunan(1998)
  •  Prix des Chenes – (1) – Second Empire (1997)

 

United States 1

  • Lawrence Realization Handicap –(1) – Ciro (2000)